There are numerous forms of wastewater resulting from human activities. These include contaminated water from urinals and toilets, greywater from laundry, bathing, dishwashers, and chemical-laden water released by industries. Wastewater often contains food residues, human waste, soaps, oils, and other chemicals harmful to different ecosystems. That is why you must treat it before discharging back into the environment. To achieve this end, you need any of the following wastewater treatment systems:
1. Effluent Treatment Plants
Effluent treatment plants (ETPs) treat the liquid waste or sewage that industries and municipal facilities discharge into a water body like a river. That is essential because effluent carries considerable volumes of organic matter and depletes the amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water when discharged directly into a water body. Plus, effluent treatment plants decimate major pollutants present in the wastewater before disposal. Therefore, if your organization deals with sewage that is extensively contaminated with chemicals like dyes and pharmaceutical wastes, ETPs are an ideal treatment solution.
2. Sewage Treatment Plants
As the name suggests, sewage treatment plants (STPs) primarily remove contaminants from sewage before it's discharged into the surrounding environment. They tackle all types of sewage, including domestic, storm, and industrial sewage, by combining chemical, physical, and biological treatment. Wastewater treatment in STPs goes through three main steps: primary, secondary, and tertiary treatments. In primary treatment, wastewater flows sluggishly, facilitating the settlement of organic solids. Then, in the secondary treatment phase, sewage's characteristic smell and appearance are eradicated by mixing the wastewater with oxygen. Finally, if the water requires disinfecting, it goes through the tertiary phase, where sand filters and banks of ultraviolet (UV) light remove fine particulate matter and irradiate viruses and bacteria, making them non-infectious.
3. Common Effluent Treatment Plants
Consider installing a common effluent treatment plant (CETP) if you run a small industry that doesn't produce enough effluent to warrant a typical effluent treatment plant (ETP). That means, if your organization isn't large enough to afford running a large and complex treatment plant effectively, a CETP will do the trick. Moreover, several small-scale industrial facilities can pool resources and install a common effluent treatment plant for collective wastewater treatment. These businesses then cost-share the CETP'S maintenance and operation needs.
4. Activated Sludge Plants
An activated sludge plant (ASP) mainly treats raw sewage by mixing it with oxygen. The process occurs in a special container known as a sludge tank. Its primary purpose is to oxidize the organic matter in sewage and produce water, carbon dioxide, and new cells. The ASP treatment process also promotes the growth of flocs, which digest and remove biological contaminants from wastewater. Many municipalities and other organizations prefer ASPs because they offer more dependable outcomes and less unpleasant smells.